How To Include Non-Academic References In Literature Review Apa Style Implicit Phonics Or Explicit Phonics?

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Implicit Phonics Or Explicit Phonics?

“There is more than one way to skin a cat” is saying that means there are multiple ways to accomplish something. I have heard this used a few times and although it is a little bit disgusting, it makes me laugh. In most cases it is absolutely true; there is usually more than one solution to a problem and different ways to approach most tasks. When talking about teaching reading, there are several approaches that have been researched and debated. The aforementioned idiom also means that an issue can be approached in different ways but the final result will be the same. With reading, that is not the case. The manner of instruction is just as important, if not more so, as what is instructed and it significantly affects the results.

What is explicit phonics?

Explicit phonics, also referred to as synthetic phonics, builds from part to whole. It begins with the instruction of the letters (graphemes) with their associated sound (phoneme). Next, explicit phonics teaches blending and building, beginning with blending the sounds into syllables and then into words. Explicit phonics is scientifically proven and research based.

What is implicit phonics?

Implicit phonics, also referred to as analytical phonics, moves from the whole to the smallest part. Phonemes associated with particular graphemes are not pronounced in isolation. Students analyze words and look for the common phoneme in a set of words. Through comparison and identification they deduce what grapheme to write or phoneme to read. Blending and building is not usually taught and students identify new words by its shape, beginning and ending letters and context clues. This analysis (breaking down) of the whole word to its parts is only necessary when a child cannot read it as a whole word. This is a whole language approach.

Which approach is best?

Research has been conclusive that explicit phonics instruction is the most effective. The U.S. Department of Education, the National Research Council, and the National Reading Panel, have all conducted research and released finding reports that support this statement. The National Reading Panel’s report on their quantitative research studies on areas of reading instruction was published in 2000. The panel reported that several reading skills are critical to becoming good readers: phonics for word identification, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. With regard to phonics their meta-analysis of hundreds of studies confirmed the findings of the National Research Council: teaching phonics (and related phonics skills, such as phonemic awareness) is a more effective way to teach children early reading skills than is embedded phonics or no phonics instruction (taken from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Scientific research has clearly demonstrated that explicit phonics instruction is the single most effective approach for all students. Obviously, many students can learn to read without such instruction; however, it is not only the at-risk students who achieve greater success under a phonics regime – so do those in the average and below reading groups (those who do OK, but not really well). A large scale study by Barbara Fman and colleagues from the University of Houston found that explicit, systematic phonics was by far the most effective approach. It was also more effective in reducing the occurrence of reading problems than any of the one-on-one tutorial programs that were evaluated, including Reading Recovery. Her findings are consistent – both with currently accepted theories of reading development and instruction, and with other empirical research emphasizing student outcome measures.

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